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NNTP News Message Tree - Felix John COLIBRI.

  • abstract : how to build a tree of the NNTP News Messages. The downloaded messages are displayed in tListBox by message thread (topic), and for each thread the messages are presented in a tTreeView
  • key words : NNTP - News Messages - newsgroups - message tree - tTreeView
  • software used : Windows XP, Delphi 6
  • hardware used : Pentium 2.800Mhz, 512 M memory, 140 G hard disc
  • scope : Delphi 1 to 2006, Turbo Delphi for Windows, Kylix
  • level : Delphi developer
  • plan :

1 - Displaying News Messages

In this article, we will simple show how to present the messages from a news thread in the classical hierarchical presentation.

The standard NNTP protocol allows us to retrieve the news headers before donwloading the text of the message.

The answer from such a command is one line per message, with the topic of the message (the "thread"), the user, the date etc. However this line does not directly tell the hierarchy of the messages. This paper will present a structure allowing to display the message in a hierarchical way. Obviously this services is interesting when incorporated

  • in a news reader
  • in an off-line news reader

2 - Organizing Messages in a Thread

2.1 - The Message Tree of a thread

News is organized by forums. For instance:


And within each forum, members start new threads. In OODesign, we found, for instance:

How to make a class/form testable?
No virtual class methods in dotnet
App Frameworks

An then other people start answering to this thread and talk to each other about this topic. When a thread is started, many people can answer. And many other can answer in turn to those "second level" messages. The result of this is a message tree

Lets take a simple example

  • we start the thread aaa1


  • two people answer back


  • one person answers to the aaa_bb1


  • one person answers to the original message


Asking all the message from thread aaa, the NNTP Server would send back the sequential list:


and our task is to build the tree from this sequential message list.

All messages are uniquely identified by a key. In our example, we used simple names for the hierarchy (aaa for level 0, bbb for level 1, ccc for level 3) and a sequential id (101, 102, 103 etc). Actual keys are not so simple. For instance, for the Borland forum, we have keys like


Building the tree is possible because each message header contains a list of all the keys from the thread root to the message itself. In message 104_aaa_bbb_ccc_4, for instance, we would have

104_aaa_bbb_ccc_4 <aaa_bbb_ccc_4> <aaa> <aaa_bbb_2>

which should be interpreted as:

  • the message is 104_aaa_bbb_ccc_4
  • the key of the message is <aaa_bbb_ccc_4>
  • the branch to which the message belongs is <aaa> - <aaa_bbb_2>
So we simply have to look at the key list and rebuild the tree with the corresponding structure.

2.2 - real live example

As an example, here is the "Why has OODb Failed?" thread from the OODesign newsgroup

Why has OODB failed?
    William Egge <> [26809]
        Michael Baytalsky <> [26810]
            John Herbster <> [26824]
                Michael Baytalsky <> [26826]
            Harley Pebley <> [26825]
        Franz-Leo Chomse <> [26811]
        Wayne Niddery [TeamB] <> [26812]
            Andreas Dorn <> [26814]
                Wayne Niddery [TeamB] <> [26816]
                    Bob Dawson <> [26817]

The original message header is the following (tabs have been replaced by new lines):

  Why has OODB failed?
  "William Egge"
  Mon, 4 Dec 2006 08:47:08 -0500
  Xref: borland.public.delphi.oodesign:26809

The first answer had the following keys:

Michael Baytalsky <>

and you notice that

  • the first key is the message's own key
  • the second key is the root key
If we extract only the keys of all the messages in this thread, we obtain:

Why has OODB failed?
    William Egge <>
        0= <457426d2$>
    Michael Baytalsky <>
        0= <>
        1= <457426d2$>
    Franz-Leo Chomse <>
        0= <>
        1= <457426d2$>
    Wayne Niddery [TeamB] <>
        0= <457449dc$>
        1= <457426d2$>
    Andreas Dorn <>
        0= <45749d75$>
        1= <457426d2$>
        2= <457449dc$>
    Wayne Niddery [TeamB] <>
        0= <4575a30c$>
        1= <457426d2$>
        2= <457449dc$>
        3= <45749d75$>
    Bob Dawson <>
        0= <45762647$>
        1= <457426d2$>
        2= <457449dc$>
        3= <45749d75$>
        4= <4575a30c$>
    John Herbster <>
        0= <>
        1= <457426d2$>
        2= <>
    Harley Pebley <>
        0= <457a068f$>
        1= <457426d2$>
        2= <>
    Michael Baytalsky <>
        0= <>
        1= <457426d2$>
        2= <>
        3= <>

2.3 - Parsing the Message Header

The message header is a simple string where the different parts are separated by Tabs (Chr(9)).

The only surprise comes from the key list, where the different keys are

  • often separated by tabs
  • sometimes separated by a space or two
  • or not separated at all (<aaa><bbb>)
Since the "<" and ">" delimiters are present, and the next field which is a number has no "<", this is not too hard to handle.

2.4 - The Construction Algorithm

When we download a list of message headers, the messages from different threads are mixed together. So the first task is to separate the messages by thread. And within a thread, we start with the message root, and gradually add answers to this thread using the key lists.

    1 - sort the messages by thread
    2 - for each thread
    22 - start with the root
    22 - for each message of the thread, add the message at the bottom of its key branch

Most of the time, the thread root is the message with a thread title without "Re: " at the start. However this is not always true, and some people (or some news readers) do not systematically prepend "Re: " to an answer message. So the best test is to check the reference list: when the list contains only one key, then this message is a thread root.

The second difficulty is that the downloading of messages is performed by requesting an ID range. In our example, we downloaded ALL available OODesign messages, which started at ID 26145 (13 Jun 2006) and ended at ID 26827 (8 Dec 2006). The "Why did OOdb failed" were in the 26808..26826 ID range.

Here is a shortened dump of some headers in the 26809..26827 range:

26809 Why has OODB failed?       William Egge 
26810 Re: Why has OODB failed?   Michael Baytalsky 
26811 Re: Why has OODB failed?   Franz-Leo Chomse 
26812 Re: Why has OODB failed?   Wayne Niddery [TeamB] 
26813 Re: SmallTalk              Peter Morris 
26814 Re: Why has OODB failed?   Andreas Dorn 
26815 Re: SmallTalk              Jarle Stabell 
26816 Re: Why has OODB failed?   Wayne Niddery [TeamB] 
26817 Re: Why has OODB failed?   Bob Dawson 
26818 Onion                      Peter Morris 
26819 TTreeView.ValidateSelecti  Ricardo Villela Coppola 
26820 Re: SmallTalk              Peter Morris 
26821 Re: SmallTalk              Bart 
26822 Re: SmallTalk              Peter Morris 
26823 Re: SmallTalk              Bart 
26824 Re: Why has OODB failed?   John Herbster 
26825 Re: Why has OODB failed?   Harley Pebley 
26826 Re: Why has OODB failed?   Michael Baytalsky 
26827 Re: TTreeView.ValidateSel  Bob Dawson 

If we had requested the 26812..26827 range, we would have missed the start of the "Why OOdb" thread. The best we can do is to insert dummy entries in the tree:

Why has OODB failed?
    --?-- [26809]
        --?-- [26810]
            John Herbster  [26824]
                Michael Baytalsky  [26826]
            Harley Pebley  [26825]
        --?-- [26811]
        Wayne Niddery [26812]
            Andreas Dorn  [26814]
                Wayne Niddery [26816]
                    Bob Dawson  [26817]

2.5 - Header Surprises

Like all Internet parsing, there are many exceptions to the nicely planned parsing. There are many RFC specifications, but even more people who do not conform to those specifications. Parsing according to an RFC specifications is not very difficult, handling all exceptions and gracefully recovering from those is another business altogether.

Here are a couple of points:

  • In our 600 entries, we found two cases where the reference list does not start at the root (entry 26279 and 26456, in our .ZIP sample file). The search for the relevant tree branch has therefore been adapted to locate the relevant entry point.
  • in the user id and e-mail part, both elements are not always present. We event found headers without ANY user/e-mail, which totally desynchronised the whole analysis
  • in the "database_ado" newsgroup, we also found messages answers without any reference to other thread messages (entry 56642 for instance, not in the header .ZIP)
  • in addition (but we have not experienced this in our sample), if the WebMaster removes some entries (because of some rude words or for some other reason), the nice reference list could have holes, and finding a nice path from the root to the end of a branch could become problematic.
So the original project, first tested on the OODesign newsgroup was "hardened" by analyzing ALL the Delphi newsgroups (17 Mb of .Txt, and 355.000 header lines). Hopefully, many possible cases are now covered.

3 - The Delphi News Message Tree

3.1 - The Basic structure

To find out how to build the tree, we downloaded all the available messages from the OODesign newsgroup. This header list was saved to file, and sorted by thread title, using a tStringList container CLASS. This allowed us to extract the key list and understand the key structure. So we grafted a second structure, with a tree organization.

Here is the UML class diagram of the thread list:



  • the c_thread_list contains a tStringList of c_threads
  • each c_thread contains a tStringList of c_messages

And here is the UML class diagram with the additional tree CLASS (in blue):



  • each c_thread contains an m_c_root_message pointer
  • each c_message_tree contains
    • a reference to a c_message
    • a m_c_child_message_list, wich is a tStringList of c_message_trees
    So the c_message_tree is a recursive structure

3.2 - The c_news_message CLASS

This is the CLASS containing each news message. Here is the definition:

    // -- m_name: the key (to find the children)

    // -- the number "26.827"
    // -- the NNTP key "<457a3fa6$>"


    // -- 0 is m_key, 1 is the root, 2 the next, Count-1 the father


    Constructor create_news_message(p_nameString);
    function f_display_news_messageString;
    function f_c_selfc_news_message;
    Destructor DestroyOverride;
  end// c_news_message


  • m_id, m_user_name_and_e_mail, m_date, m_byte_count, m_line_count, m_group_ref, m_c_key_list are directly extracted from the NNTP message header
  • m_key is the first entry in the key list (the message's own key)
  • m_user_name and m_user_e_mail are extracted from the m_user_name_and_e_mail header field
  • m_user_name_and_e_mail is set for the first message found with this thread title (not necessarily the root, if we start downloading in the middle of a thread)

3.3 - The c_news_message_tree

The tree structure is defined by:

    // -- m_name: the key (to find the children)

    // -- the payload

    Constructor create_news_message_tree(p_nameString

    function f_display_news_message_treeString;
    function f_c_selfc_news_message_tree;

    function f_news_message_child_countInteger;
    function f_c_news_message_child(
        p_news_message_indexInteger): c_news_message_tree;
    function f_index_of_news_message_child(
        p_news_message_nameString): Integer;
    function f_c_find_by_news_message_child(
        p_news_message_nameString): c_news_message_tree;

    procedure add_news_message_child(
    procedure display_news_message_child_list;

    Destructor DestroyOverride;
  end// c_news_message_tree


  • the f_xxx_count(), f_c_xxx(), f_index_of_xxx(), f_c_find_by_xxx(), add_xxx(), f_c_add_xxx() are our traditional tStringList encapsulation methods, which should be familiar to those who already looked at many of our other projects
  • here is, as an example, the recursive display method which was used above to display the tree structure of the OODb thread:

    procedure c_news_message_tree.display_news_message_child_list;

      procedure display_recursive(p_levelInteger;
        var l_news_message_indexInteger;
          with p_c_news_message do
            if m_c_news_message_refNil
              then display(f_spaces(2+ p_level* 2)+ 'bogus')
                with m_c_news_message_ref do
                  display(f_spaces(2+ p_level* 2)+ m_user_name_and_e_mail
                      + ' ['m_id']');

            for l_news_message_index:= 0 to f_news_message_child_count- 1 do
              display_recursive(p_level+ 1,
          end// with p_c_news_message
        end// display_recursive

      begin // display_news_message_child_list
        display_recursive(0, Self);
      end// display_news_message_child_list

3.4 - The c_news_thread_message CLASS

Here is the definition of the CLASS representing a complete thread:

c_news_thread// one thread= serveral messages
    // -- m_name: the thread title (the topic)

    // -- the linear structure

    // -- the message tree
    // -- the root of the thread was not retrieved (too old)

    Constructor create_news_thread(p_nameString);
    function f_display_news_threadString;
    function f_c_selfc_news_thread;

    // -- the linear structure
    function f_news_message_countInteger;
    function f_c_news_message(p_news_message_indexInteger): c_news_message;
    function f_index_of(p_news_message_nameString): Integer;
    function f_c_find_by_news_message(p_news_message_nameString): c_news_message;
    procedure add_news_message(p_news_message_nameString;
    function f_c_add_news_message(p_news_message_nameString): c_news_message;
    procedure display_news_message_list;

    // -- add to the tree
    function f_c_find_in_tree(p_keyString): c_news_message_tree;
    procedure add_news_thread_message_to_tree(p_c_news_messagec_news_message);
    procedure fill_treeview(p_c_treeview_reftTreeView);

    Destructor DestroyOverride;
  end// c_news_message_list


  • the main method inserts a new message in the tree:

    procedure c_news_thread.add_news_thread_message_to_tree(

      procedure append_leaf_message(p_c_parent_news_message_treec_news_message_tree);
        // ...
      procedure create_initial_branch;
        // ...
      procedure add_the_message;
        // ...
      procedure add_broken_message;
        // ...

      begin // add_news_thread_message_to_tree
        if m_c_root_news_messageNil
          then begin
              // -- this is the first message with this topic

              if p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list.Count> 1
                then // -- if the key list contains several items (not the first),
                    // -- build a bogus tree
                else m_c_root_news_message:=
                        p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list[0], p_c_news_message);
          else begin
              // -- the tree has already been initialized (could be a broken tree)
              // --   Insert the message in this tree
              if not m_has_root_message
                then add_broken_message
                else // add_the_message_recursive(m_c_root_news_message, 1);
      end// add_news_thread_message_to_tree

  • the message is added as a leaf with:

    procedure append_leaf_message(p_c_parent_news_message_treec_news_message_tree);
      var l_new_news_message_keyString;
        l_new_news_message_key:= p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list[0];
      end// append_leaf_message

  • a "standard" message is inserted by walking down from the root using:

    procedure add_the_message;
      var l_key_indexInteger;
        // -- normally [1] is the root. In some cases this is not the case
        // --  => has to locate the [1] value
        l_key:= p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list[1];
        l_c_parent_news_message_tree:= f_c_find_in_tree(l_key);

        l_key_index:= 2;
        while l_key_index<= p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list.Count- 1 do
          l_key:= p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list[l_key_index];
          if l_c_child_news_message_treeNil
            then display_bug_stop('not_found_'l_key)
            else l_c_parent_news_message_tree:= l_c_child_news_message_tree;
        end// while l_key_index

        // -- finally append the node itself
      end// add_the_message

  • when the first message of a thread is not the root (there are several keys in the key list), we build an initial bogus tree, and append the first message:

    procedure create_initial_branch;
        // -- no root, and already keys => create a bogus tree
      var l_key_indexInteger;
        with p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list do
          // -- the (empty) root
              c_news_message_tree.create_news_message_tree(Strings[1], Nil);
          l_c_parent_news_message_tree:= m_c_root_news_message;

          // -- now the branch of the intermediates
          for l_key_index:= 2 to Count- 1 do
                c_news_message_tree.create_news_message_tree(Strings[l_key_index], Nil);
            l_c_parent_news_message_tree:= l_c_intermediate_news_message_tree;
        end// with p_c_news_message

        // -- finally append the node itself
      end// create_initial_branch

  • and if we find a message which is not the first in a thread with no root, we try to append the message to a previous branch, or create a new branch if necessary:

    procedure add_broken_message;
        // -- we do not have the first message. Could start in the middle
        // -- of many answers
        // --  => if finds an ancestor, ok, else create bogus branches
      var l_key_indexInteger;
        // -- Try to locate the [1] value
        l_key:= p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list[1];
        l_c_parent_news_message_tree:= f_c_find_in_tree(l_key);
        if l_c_parent_news_message_treeNil
          then begin
              // -- create the branch (not tested)

        // -- now, starting from the initial root, try to find the longest parent
        l_key_index:= 2;
        while l_key_index<= p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list.Count- 1 do
          l_key:= p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list[l_key_index];
          if l_c_child_news_message_treeNil
            then Break
            else l_c_parent_news_message_tree:= l_c_child_news_message_tree;
        end// while l_key_index

        // -- if did not reach the end, create a bogus branch from the parent to the node
        for l_intermediate_key_index:= l_key_index
            to p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list.Count- 1 do
          l_key:= p_c_news_message.m_c_key_list[l_intermediate_key_index];
          l_c_parent_news_message_tree:= l_c_intermediate_news_message_tree;

        // -- finally append the node itself
      end// add_broken_message

    To locate a key anywhere in the tree (for messages which do not start the key list at the root), we have created a special f_c_find_in_tree() method:

    function c_news_thread.f_c_find_in_tree(p_keyString): c_news_message_tree;

      procedure find_in_tree_recursive(p_c_news_message_treec_news_message_tree);
        var l_child_indexInteger;
          if p_c_news_message_treeNil
              with p_c_news_message_tree do
                if m_namep_key
                  then begin
                      Result:= f_c_self;

                for l_child_index:= 0 to f_news_message_child_count- 1 do
        end// find_in_tree_recursive

      begin // f_c_find_in_tree
        Result:= Nil;
      end// f_c_find_in_tree

3.5 - The c_news_thread_list CLASS

The main CLASS is defined by:


    Constructor create_news_thread_list(p_nameString);

    function f_news_thread_countInteger;
    function f_c_news_thread(p_news_thread_indexInteger): c_news_thread;
    function f_index_of(p_news_thread_nameString): Integer;
    function f_c_find_by_news_thread(p_news_thread_nameString): c_news_thread;
    procedure add_news_thread(p_news_thread_nameString;
    function f_c_add_news_thread(p_news_thread_nameString): c_news_thread;

    procedure display_news_thread_list;
    procedure display_news_thread(p_thread_titleStringp_tree_or_listBoolean);

    procedure load_from_file(p_full_file_nameString);

    Destructor DestroyOverride;
  end// c_news_thread_list


  • the main method is the load_from_file PROCEDURE:

    procedure c_news_thread_list.load_from_file(p_full_file_nameString);
      var l_list_indexInteger;

      function f_extract_tabString;
        // ...
      procedure extract_keys(p_c_news_messagec_news_message);
        // ...
      function f_extractString;
        // ...

      var l_c_news_threadc_news_thread;

      begin // load_from_file
        with tStringList.Create do

          for l_list_index:= 0 to Count- 1 do
            l_the_line:= Trim(Strings[l_list_index]);

            l_index:= 1;
            l_length:= Length(l_the_line);

            l_id:= f_string_extract_non_blank(l_the_linel_index);

            l_thread_name:= f_extract_tab;

            l_is_first_in_thread:= False;
            if Copy(l_thread_name, 1, 4)= 'Re: '
              then begin
                  System.Delete(l_thread_name, 1, 4);
                  l_c_news_thread:= f_c_find_by_news_thread(l_thread_name);
                  if l_c_news_threadNil
                    then begin
                        l_c_news_thread:= f_c_add_news_thread(l_thread_name);
                        l_is_first_in_thread:= True;
              else begin
                  l_c_news_thread:= f_c_find_by_news_thread(l_thread_name);
                  // -- should NOT find a prior element
                  if l_c_news_threadNil
                    then begin
                        l_c_news_thread:= f_c_add_news_thread(l_thread_name);
                        l_is_first_in_thread:= True;

            l_name:= f_extract_tab;
            l_date:= f_extract_tab;

            l_c_news_message:= c_news_message.create_news_message(l_id);
            with l_c_news_message do
              m_id:= l_id;
              m_user_name_and_e_mail:= l_name;
              m_date:= l_date;

              m_key:= m_c_key_list[0];

              m_byte_count:= f_extract;
              m_line_count:= f_extract;
              m_group_ref:= f_extract;

              l_index:= 1;
              m_user_name:= Trim(f_string_extract_until(m_user_name_and_e_mail,
              m_user_e_mail:= Copy(m_user_name_and_e_maill_index,
                  Length(m_user_name_and_e_mail)+ 1- l_index);

              m_is_first_in_thread:= l_is_first_in_thread;
              if m_is_first_in_thread
                then l_c_news_thread.m_has_root_message:= (m_c_key_list.Count= 1);
            end// with l_c_news_message

          end// while l_list_index

        end// with tStringList
      end// load_from_file

3.6 - The complete Delphi Project

The whole u_c_news_thread_list is imported in our main project, and clicking on the .TXT file containing the header list form any NNTP download creates either the linear list, or the tree. This tree can then be displayed in a tTreeView:

Here is a snapshot of the project, when we create the linear structure, and ask to display the messages of the OODb thread:


If we build the trees, the application displays this:


and if we look at the "treeview" tab:


I did not have the time to read the messages, but now that the tree sytem works, I am eager to look at the "Onion" thread. Just curious...

4 - Improvements to the Message Tree

The first thing will be to write the Destroy methods. Being busy to find the adequate structure, this was left behind.

We started with the linear list, and after the analysis of the key lists, we created the tree structure. We then scrapped the linear structure, only to find out that it was convenient for displaying unexpected key lists (for instance when the list does not start at the root). In addition, when we dowload the daily news, it is quite often to break into a thread started days, or even weeks before our download. In this case, building the tree does not make much sense. So we included the linear list back into the structure.

Reading and organizing the NNTP news headers is a fine exercise, but not very usefull. The whole UNIT obviously has to be grafted upon a on-line or off-line news reader. Well, the Threaded Indy News Reader presents such an on-line newsreader based on the Indy NNTP component.

5 - Download the Delphi Sources

Here are the source code files:
  • the project building the tree and displaying it in a tTreeView, with all the used UNITs (28 K)
  • the .TXT file of the message headers downloaded from the OODesign Delphi newsgroup. This is just an example, but the project can work on any similar file (31 K)

The .ZIP file(s) contain:

  • the main program (.DPR, .DOF, .RES), the main form (.PAS, .DFM), and any other auxiliary form
  • any .TXT for parameters, samples, test data
  • all units (.PAS) for units
Those .ZIP
  • are self-contained: you will not need any other product (unless expressly mentioned).
  • for Delphi 6 projects, can be used from any folder (the pathes are RELATIVE)
  • will not modify your PC in any way beyond the path where you placed the .ZIP (no registry changes, no path creation etc).
To use the .ZIP:
  • create or select any folder of your choice
  • unzip the downloaded file
  • using Delphi, compile and execute
To remove the .ZIP simply delete the folder.

The Pascal code uses the Alsacian notation, which prefixes identifier by program area: K_onstant, T_ype, G_lobal, L_ocal, P_arametre, F_unction, C_lasse etc. This notation is presented in the Alsacian Notation paper.

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6 - The author

Felix John COLIBRI works at the Pascal Institute. Starting with Pascal in 1979, he then became involved with Object Oriented Programming, Delphi, Sql, Tcp/Ip, Html, UML. Currently, he is mainly active in the area of custom software development (new projects, maintenance, audits, BDE migration, Delphi Xe_n migrations, refactoring), Delphi Consulting and Delph training. His web site features tutorials, technical papers about programming with full downloadable source code, and the description and calendar of forthcoming Delphi, FireBird, Tcp/IP, Web Services, OOP  /  UML, Design Patterns, Unit Testing training sessions.
Created: dec-06. Last updated: jul-15 - 98 articles, 131 .ZIP sources, 1012 figures
Copyright © Felix J. Colibri 2004 - 2015. All rigths reserved
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