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Asp.Net Viewstate Viewer - Felix John COLIBRI.

  • abstract : the structure and display of the Viewstate hidden field incorporated in Asp.Net exchanges
  • key words : ASP.NET - ViewState - Stateless protocol - Viewer
  • software used : Windows XP, Asp.Net 1.1 - Delphi 2005
  • hardware used : Pentium 2.800Mhz, 512 M memory, 250 G hard disc
  • scope : Asp Net 1.1, 2.0, Mono, Delphi 8, 2005, 2005
  • level : Asp.Net / Delphi developer
  • plan :


1 - ViewState Viewer

This simple utility displays the content of the "viewstate" field, which is a state carrier of any Asp.Net page.

The HTTP protocol is "stateless": the Server does not maintain the state of a Client request, since usually there are many Clients, and managing the state of each of them would overburden the Server and make any scalability impossible. So the Client must include state information with each request, and the Server sends back this state to the Client.

In Asp.Net, this state information in encoded in a viewstate field. The content is coded. So the purpose of this paper is to analyze the viewstate content.

Also let us mention that this paper presents ASP.NET 1.1 viewstate analysis. The content of ASP.NET 2.0 viewer is slightly different (see the Reference section)




2 - The Viewstate Analyzer Source Code

2.1 - The Viewstate structure

The Viewstate field is not crypted. But it has a 2 level coding:
  • first all HTML punctuations, like "<", "+", "=" are encoded using a %nn notation. For instance, "+" is coded as "%2B" (where $2B is the Hex value of the ASCII code of ".")
  • then the text is "base 64" encoded: to fit all 256 possible byte value in 7 bits, there is a transcoding from 8 to 7 bits.
The resulting decoded string follows a "compact xml" structure, where the elements are all between "<" and ">" and the elements of the tags are triples, pairs, lists arrays and indexes.

The IEBNF (Indented Extended BNF) grammar of this coding is

 
viewstateelement .
  element = triple | pair | list | index .
    triple= 't<element ';element ';element '>.
    pair= 'p<element ';element '>.
    list= 'l<' { element ';' } .
    index= 'i<value '>.
      valueANY_BUT ( ';' | '>' ) .



In a schematic way, the structure looks like:

the viewstate structure



Here is the content of a viewstate field (from the Asp.Net example presented below):

 
__VIEWSTATE=dDwxMTg3NDQ2OTMwO3Q8O2w8aTwxPjs%2BO2w8dD
w7bDxpPDE%2BOz47bDx0PHQ8O3A8bDxpPDA%2BO2k8MT47aTwyPj
tpPDM%2BO2k8ND47aTw1PjtpPDY%
2BO2k8Nz47aTw4Pjs%2BO2w8cDxBbXN0ZXJkYW07QW0%2BO3A8Qm
FyY2Vsb25hO0JhPjtwPEZyYW5rZn
VydDtGcj47cDxHZW5ldmE7R2U%2BO3A8TG9uZG9uO0xvPjtwPE1pb
GFubztNaT47cDxOZXcgWW9yaztO
eT47cDxQYXJpcztQYT47cDxTeWRuZXk7c3k%2BOz4%2BOz47Oz47P
j47Pj47PjxlNdt3PuVJT7gpuLcE
0Er9eNDy



2.2 - The Delphi Source Code

The routine which removes the %nn part is the following:

function f_convert_special_characters(p_stringString): String;
  var l_hex_stringShortString;
      l_indexInteger;
  begin
    l_index:= 1;
    Result:= '';

    while l_index<= Length(p_stringdo
    begin
      if p_string[l_index]= '%'
        then
          begin
            // -- change specials %26 into &
            l_hex_string:= '$00';
            l_hex_string[2]:= p_string[l_index+ 1];
            l_hex_string[3]:= p_string[l_index+ 2];
            Result:= ResultChr(StrToInt(l_hex_string));
            Inc(l_index, 2);
          end
        else Result:= Resultp_string[l_index];

      Inc(l_index);
    end// while
  end// f_convert_special_characters

 
dDwxMTg3NDQ2OTMwO3Q8O2w8aTwxPjs+O2w8dDw7bDxpP
DE+Oz47bDx0PHQ8O3A8bDxpPDA+O2k8MT47
aTwyPjtpPDM+O2k8ND47aTw1PjtpPDY+O2k8Nz47aTw4P
js+O2w8cDxBbXN0ZXJkYW07QW0+O3A8QmFy
Y2Vsb25hO0JhPjtwPEZyYW5rZnVydDtGcj47cDxHZW5ld
mE7R2U+O3A8TG9uZG9uO0xvPjtwPE1pbGFu
bztNaT47cDxOZXcgWW9yaztOeT47cDxQYXJpcztQYT47c
DxTeWRuZXk7c3k+Oz4+Oz47Oz47Pj47Pj47
PjxlNdt3PuVJT7gpuLcE0Er9eNDy



We are using the following CLASS to decode the base 64 string:

 c_base_64_uuencodeclass(c_basic_object)
                       m_trace_uuencodeBoolean;

                       Constructor create_base_64_uuencode(p_nameString);

                       procedure trace_uuencode(p_textString);

                       procedure convert_stream_to_base_64_strings(p_c_streamtStream;
                           p_c_base_64_stringstStrings);
                       procedure convert_base_64_strings_to_stream(p_c_base_64_stringstStrings;
                           p_c_streamtStream;
                           p_raise_exception_or_padBoolean);
                     end// c_base_64_uuencode

The detail of the decode method is in the .zip

And here is the result of decoding our viewstate:

 
t<1187446930;t<;l<i<1>;>;l<t<;l<i<1>;>;l<t<t<;
p<l<i<0>;i<1>;i<2>;i<3>;i<4>;i<5>;
i<6>;i<7>;i<8>;>;l<p<Amsterdam;Am>;p<Barcelona;Ba>;
p<Frankfurt;Fr>;p<Geneva;Ge>;
p<London;Lo>;p<Milano;Mi>;p<New York;Ny>;p<Paris;Pa>;p<Sydney;sy>;>>;>;;>;>>;>>;
><e5w>IO)Jx|

The triple / pair / list / index structure is already noticeable in this content.



To decode the "compact xml" format, we are using a recursive parsing routine which is the following:

procedure analyze_recursive(p_levelIntegerp_titleString);

  procedure add_result(p_textString);
    begin
      if Trim(p_text)<> ''
        then m_c_result_list.Add(f_spaces(p_level* 2)+ p_text);
    end// add_result

  procedure analyze_triplet;
      // -- "t<xxx;yyy;zzz>"
    begin
      Inc(l_index, 2);
      analyze_recursive(p_level+ 1, ' t1 ');
      check_and_skip(';');
      analyze_recursive(p_level+ 1,' t2 ');
      check_and_skip(';');
      analyze_recursive(p_level+ 1,' t3 ');
      // -- here should be on "<"
      Inc(l_index);
    end// analyze_triplet

  procedure analyze_pair;
      // -- "p<xxx;yyy>"
    begin
      Inc(l_index, 2);
      analyze_recursive(p_level+ 1,'p1');
      // -- here on ";"
      check_and_skip(';');
      analyze_recursive(p_level+ 1,'p2');
      // -- here on ";"
      check_and_skip('>');
    end// analyze_pair

  procedure analyze_list;
      // -- "l<xxx;yyy;zzz;>"
    var l_listString;
    begin
      Inc(l_index, 2);

      if (l_index+ 1<= l_lengthand (m_viewstate_string[l_index+ 1]= '<')
        then begin
            repeat
              analyze_recursive(p_level+ 1,'list');
              check_and_skip(';');
            until (l_index>= l_lengthor (m_viewstate_string[l_index]= '>');
            l_list:= '';
          end
        else begin
            l_list:= f_string_skip_until_match(m_viewstate_string'>'l_index);
          end;

      // -- here on ">"
      Inc(l_index);
    end// analyze_list

  procedure analyze_index;
    var l_index_stringString;
    begin
      Inc(l_index, 2);

      l_index_string:= f_string_skip_until(m_viewstate_string'>'l_index);
      add_result(l_index_string);

      // -- here on ">"
      check_and_skip('>');
    end// analyze_index

  procedure analyze_until_semi_colon;
    var l_contentString;
    begin
      l_content:= f_string_skip_until_in(m_viewstate_string, [';''>'], l_index);
      add_result(l_content);
    end// analyze_until_semi_colon

  begin // analyze_recursive
    if f_is_triplet
      then analyze_triplet else
    if f_is_pair
      then analyze_pair else
    if f_is_list
      then analyze_list else
    if f_is_index
      then analyze_index
      else analyze_until_semi_colon;
  end// analyze_recursive

and the test of the triplet, pair, list or index parts are simply tested by checking the "x<" presence. This is the triple detection function:

function f_is_tripletBoolean;
  begin
    Result:= (l_index+ 1<= l_length)
      and (m_viewstate_string[l_index]= 't')
      and (m_viewstate_string[l_index+ 1]= '<')
  end// f_is_triplet



The (partial) trace of the analysis is:

 
>[ 1] analyze_recursive (start)t
  >[ 1] analyze_triplet t
    >[ 3] analyze_recursive ( t1 )1
      >[ 3] analyze_until_; 1
      <[ 13] analyze_until_; 1187446930
    <[ 13] analyze_recursive

And the collected viewstate content is (partial):

 
1187446930
  1
    1
      0
      1
      2
...
        Amsterdam
        Am
        Barcelona
        Ba



2.3 - simple example

Let's analyze the viewstate content of a simple page request and submit. Our page will simply
  • display a Combobox with towns where we hold our Asp.Net trainings
  • and a TextBox for the user e-mail
  • When the user clicks the "submit" button, we will send him back the next session date.
This mock-up page is a fake one, but of course, our trainings are not !

Here is how we build the Asp.Net application:
   start Delphi
   select "file | new | asp.net application"

asp net new project

   Delphi presents the path / file / server dialog
   type the requested information:

asp net
path and file name

   then, in the top right tree project manager, right click the WebForm1.aspx line, and rename the file name "a_asp_net_trainings.aspx"

asp net file name

   in the top left structure tree, rename the CLASS

asp net class name

   compile to make sure everything is set up correctly
   Delphi compiles, starts Cassini, loads Internet Explorer which displays our (empty) application
   close Internet Explorer

   open up NotePad and type the following training locations:

 
Am=Amsterdam
Ba=Barcelona
Fr=Frankfurt
Ge=Geneva
Lo=London
Mi=Milano
Ny=New York
Pa=Paris
sy=Sydney

and save the file in the Asp.Net directory under "towns.txt"

   drop a DropDownList on the Form, and rename it "town_dropdownlist_"

   load the towns in town_dropdownlist_ in the Init event:
  • declare the method and import System.Io:

    interface
      type
        Tasp_net_training_form =
          class(System.Web.UI.Page)
            // ...
            private
              procedure load_combobox_from_file(p_c_dropdown_listDropDownList
                  p_full_file_nameString);
           end// Tasp_net_training_form

    implementation
      uses System.IO;

  • write the loading code:

    procedure Tasp_net_training_form.load_combobox_from_file(
        p_c_dropdown_listDropDownList;
        p_full_file_nameString);
      var l_c_stream_readerStreamReader;
          l_town_name_and_valuearray of String;
          l_town_nameString;
          l_town_valueString;
      begin
        if System.IO.File.Exists(p_full_file_name)
          then begin
              l_c_stream_reader := 
                  StreamReader.Create(System.IO.File.OpenRead(p_full_file_name));
              try
                while l_c_stream_reader.Peek > -1 do
                begin
                  l_town_name_and_value := 
                      l_c_stream_reader.ReadLine.Split(['=']);
                  l_town_name   := l_town_name_and_value[0];
                  l_town_value  := l_town_name_and_value[1];
                  p_c_dropdown_list.Items.Add(ListItem.Create(l_town_value
                      l_town_name));
                end;
              finally
                l_c_stream_reader.Close;
              end// try finally
            end// file exists
      end// load_combobox_from_file

  • call this method in the OnInit event:

    const k_town_file_name'towns.txt';

    procedure Tasp_net_training_form.OnInit(eEventArgs);
      begin
        InitializeComponent;
        inherited OnInit(e);

        load_combobox_from_file(town_dropdownlist_,
            Request.PhysicalApplicationPathk_town_file_name);
        town_dropdownlist_.Items.FindByText('New York').Selected := True;
      end// OnInit


   add some text to the .HTML in the PageLoad event:

procedure Tasp_net_training_form.Page_Load(senderSystem.Object;
    eSystem.EventArgs);
  begin
    if IsPostBack
      then Response.Write('<BR><BR>PostBack :')
      else Response.Write('<BR><BR>Welcome 'k_town_file_name);
  end// Page_Load

   add a Button to the Form

procedure Tasp_net_trainings_form.Button1_Click(senderSystem.Object
    eSystem.EventArgs);
  var l_date_timeSystem.DateTime;
  begin
    l_date_time:= System.DateTime.Now.AddDays(30);
    Response.Write('Next Asp.Net session: 'Convert.ToString(l_date_time));
  end// Button1_Click

   compile and run
   Delphi starts Cassini, loads Internet Explorer which displays our application:

image

   select "Sydney", for instance, and click "Button"

   the submission is sent to Cassini which answers back:

image



Now the viewstate analysis part:
   to capture the answer viewstate, in Internet Explorer select "display | source"
   the ascii content of the .HTML is displayed in Notepad, included the viewstate field (hilighted) :

image

   copy the viewstate in the ClipBoard, start the viewstate analyzer application, paste the viewstate in the upper Memo, and click "decode":

image

   click "analyze"

   the content of the viewstate is displayed:

image



2.4 - Improvements

Just a couple of points:
  • using Internet Explorer "view source" only displays the incoming viewstates. To capture the outgoing viewstate, we should capture the viewstate in the .Pas file on the Server.

    The other solution (which we generally use) is to capture the packets flowing between the Internet Explorer and the IIS or Cassini Server.

    In fact we have incorporated the c_viewstate_analyzer in our Cassini Packet Capture project, so we can monitor all file transfers between the Client and the Server

    Here is the full data exchange (the viewstates have been split in several lines, and NOT decoded in this snapshot):

     

    0 ====================================== 345
        -> | GET /p_asp_net_trainings/a_asp_net_trainings.aspx HTTP/1.1
        -> | Accept: image/gif, image/x-xbitmap, image/jpeg, image/pjpeg, application/x-shockwave-flash, */*
        -> | Accept-Language: fr
        -> | Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
        -> | User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; SV1; .NET CLR 1.1.4322)
        -> | Host: localhost:81
        -> | Connection: Keep-Alive
        -> |
        -> |
    --------------------------------------279
     <-    | HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     <-    | Server: Cassini/1.0.0.0
     <-    | Date: Thu, 16 Mar 2006 07:45:21 GMT
     <-    | X-AspNet-Version: 1.1.4322
     <-    | Set-Cookie: ASP.NET_SessionId=ea40eceyu5j4s1mexanyan55; path=/
     <-    | Cache-Control: private
     <-    | Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
     <-    | Content-Length: 1343
     <-    | Connection: Close
     <-    |
     <-    |
    --------------------------------------1344
     <-    | <BR><BR>Welcome towns.txt
     <-    | <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
     <-    |
     <-    | <html>
     <-    | <head>
     <-    | <title></title>
     <-    | </head>
     <-    | <body ms_positioning="GridLayout">
     <-    | <form name="_ctl0" method="post" action="a_asp_net_trainings.aspx" id="_ctl0">
     <-    | <input type="hidden" name="__VIEWSTATE" value="dDwxMTg3NDQ2OTMwO3Q8O2w8aTwxPjs+O2w
    8dDw7bDxpPDE+Oz47bDx0PHQ8O3A8bDxpPDA+O2k8M
    T47aTwyPjtpPDM+O2k8ND47aTw1PjtpPDY+O2k8
    Nz47aTw4Pjs+O2w8cDxBbXN0ZXJkYW07QW0+O3A8Qm
    FyY2Vsb25hO0JhPjtwPEZyYW5rZnVydDtGcj47c
    DxHZW5ldmE7R2U+O3A8TG9uZG9uO0xvPjtwPE1pbGF
    ubztNaT47cDxOZXcgWW9yaztOeT47cDxQYXJpcz
    tQYT47cDxTeWRuZXk7c3k+Oz4+Oz47Oz47Pj47Pj47
    PjxlNdt3PuVJT7gpuLcE0Er9eNDy" />
     <-    |
     <-    | <select name="town_dropdownlist_" id="town_dropdownlist_" style="Z-INDEX: 1; LEFT: 14px; POSITION: absolute; TOP: 14px">
     <-    | <option value="Am">Amsterdam</option>
     <-    | <option value="Ba">Barcelona</option>
     <-    | <option value="Fr">Frankfurt</option>
     <-    | <option value="Ge">Geneva</option>
     <-    | <option value="Lo">London</option>
     <-    | <option value="Mi">Milano</option>
     <-    | <option selected="selected" value="Ny">New York</option>
     <-    | <option value="Pa">Paris</option>
     <-    | <option value="sy">Sydney</option>
     <-    |
     <-    | </select>
     <-    | <input type="submit" name="Button1" value="Button" id="Button1" style="Z-INDEX: 2; LEFT: 254px; POSITION: absolute; TOP: 14px" />
     <-    | </form>
     <-    | </body>
     <-    | </html>
     <-    |
    1 ====================================== 985
        -> | POST /p_asp_net_trainings/a_asp_net_trainings.aspx HTTP/1.1
        -> | Accept: image/gif, image/x-xbitmap, image/jpeg, image/pjpeg, application/x-shockwave-flash, */*
        -> | Referer: http://localhost:81/p_asp_net_trainings/a_asp_net_trainings.aspx
        -> | Accept-Language: fr
        -> | Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
        -> | Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
        -> | User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; SV1; .NET CLR 1.1.4322)
        -> | Host: localhost:81
        -> | Content-Length: 417
        -> | Connection: Keep-Alive
        -> | Cache-Control: no-cache
        -> | Cookie: ASP.NET_SessionId=ea40eceyu5j4s1mexanyan55
        -> |
        -> | __VIEWSTATE=dDwxMTg3NDQ2OTMwO3Q8O2w8aTwxPjs%2BO2w8dD
    w7bDxpPDE%2BOz47bDx0PHQ8O3A8bDxpPDA%2BO2k8MT47aTwyPj
    tpPDM%2BO2k8ND47aTw1PjtpPDY%
    2BO2k8Nz47aTw4Pjs%2BO2w8cDxBbXN0ZXJkYW07QW0%2BO3A8Qm
    FyY2Vsb25hO0JhPjtwPEZyYW5rZn
    VydDtGcj47cDxHZW5ldmE7R2U%2BO3A8TG9uZG9uO0xvPjtwPE1p
    bGFubztNaT47cDxOZXcgWW9yaztO
    eT47cDxQYXJpcztQYT47cDxTeWRuZXk7c3k%2BOz4%2BOz47Oz47
    Pj47Pj47PjxlNdt3PuVJT7gpuLcE
    0Er9eNDy&town_dropdownlist_=sy&Button1=Button
    --------------------------------------215
     <-    | HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     <-    | Server: Cassini/1.0.0.0
     <-    | Date: Thu, 16 Mar 2006 07:45:30 GMT
     <-    | X-AspNet-Version: 1.1.4322
     <-    | Cache-Control: private
     <-    | Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
     <-    | Content-Length: 1377
     <-    | Connection: Close
     <-    |
     <-    |
    --------------------------------------1378
     <-    | <BR><BR>PostBack :Next Asp.Net session: 15/04/2006 08:45:30
     <-    | <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
     <-    |
     <-    | <html>
     <-    | <head>
     <-    | <title></title>
     <-    | </head>
     <-    | <body ms_positioning="GridLayout">
     <-    | <form name="_ctl0" method="post" action="a_asp_net_trainings.aspx" id="_ctl0">
     <-    | <input type="hidden" name="__VIEWSTATE"
    value="dDwxMTg3NDQ2OTMwO3Q8O2w8aTwxPjs+O2w8dDw7bDxpP
    DE+Oz47bDx0PHQ8O3A8bDxpPDA+O
    2k8MT47aTwyPjtpPDM+O2k8ND47aTw1PjtpPDY+O2k8Nz47aTw4P
    js+O2w8cDxBbXN0ZXJkYW07QW0+O
    3A8QmFyY2Vsb25hO0JhPjtwPEZyYW5rZnVydDtGcj47cDxHZW5ld
    mE7R2U+O3A8TG9uZG9uO0xvPjtwP
    E1pbGFubztNaT47cDxOZXcgWW9yaztOeT47cDxQYXJpcztQYT47c
    DxTeWRuZXk7c3k+Oz4+Oz47Oz47P
    j47Pj47PjxlNdt3PuVJT7gpuLcE0Er9eNDy" />
     <-    |
     <-    | <select name="town_dropdownlist_" id="town_dropdownlist_" style="Z-INDEX: 1; LEFT: 14px; POSITION: absolute; TOP: 14px">
     <-    | <option value="Am">Amsterdam</option>
     <-    | <option value="Ba">Barcelona</option>
     <-    | <option value="Fr">Frankfurt</option>
     <-    | <option value="Ge">Geneva</option>
     <-    | <option value="Lo">London</option>
     <-    | <option value="Mi">Milano</option>
     <-    | <option value="Ny">New York</option>
     <-    | <option value="Pa">Paris</option>
     <-    | <option selected="selected" value="sy">Sydney</option>
     <-    |
     <-    | </select>
     <-    | <input type="submit" name="Button1" value="Button" id="Button1" style="Z-INDEX: 2; LEFT: 254px; POSITION: absolute; TOP: 14px" />
     <-    | </form>
     <-    | </body>
     <-    | </html>


  • the exercise clearly demonstrates that the viewstate only contains
    • whatever the .HTML protocol does not transfers
    • anything the Asp.Net developper added to the viewstate (not displayed)
    In our case, the .HTML already contained the DropDownList items (in red):

     
    <BR><BR>PostBack :Next Asp.Net session: 15/04/2006 07:33:42
    <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">

    <html>
      <head>
        <title></title>
      </head>
      <body ms_positioning="GridLayout">
        <form name="_ctl0" method="post"
            action="a_asp_net_trainings.aspx" id="_ctl0">
          <input type="hidden" name="__VIEWSTATE"
               value="dDwxMTg3 ... gpuLcE0Er9eNDy" />
          <select name="town_dropdownlist_" id="town_dropdownlist_"
              style="Z-INDEX: 1; LEFT: 14px; POSITION: absolute; TOP: 14px">
             <option value="Am">Amsterdam</option>
            <option value="Ba">Barcelona</option>
            <option value="Fr">Frankfurt</option>
            <option value="Ge">Geneva</option>
            <option value="Lo">London</option>
            <option value="Mi">Milano</option>
            <option value="Ny">New York</option>
            <option value="Pa">Paris</option>
            <option selected="selected" value="sy">Sydney</option>
     
          </select>
          <input type="submit" name="Button1" value="Button" id="Button1"
            style="Z-INDEX: 2; LEFT: 254px; POSITION: absolute; TOP: 14px" />
        </form>
      </body>
    </html>

    but .HTML could not code the "key=value" list which is an Asp.Net feature. So this part was placed in the viewstate (in blue, partial)

  • we could improve the decoding of the viewstate. For instance, we could try to link the displayed values to the Form controls.



3 - Download the Sources

We will not Here are the source code files:

The .ZIP file(s) contain:

  • the main program (.DPR, .DOF, .RES), the main form (.PAS, .DFM), and any other auxiliary form
  • any .TXT for parameters, samples, test data
  • all units (.PAS) for units
Those .ZIP
  • are self-contained: you will not need any other product (unless expressly mentioned).
  • for Delphi 6 projects, can be used from any folder (the pathes are RELATIVE)
  • will not modify your PC in any way beyond the path where you placed the .ZIP (no registry changes, no path creation etc).
To use the .ZIP:
  • create or select any folder of your choice
  • unzip the downloaded file
  • using Delphi, compile and execute
To remove the .ZIP simply delete the folder.

The Pascal code uses the Alsacian notation, which prefixes identifier by program area: K_onstant, T_ype, G_lobal, L_ocal, P_arametre, F_unction, C_lasse etc. This notation is presented in the Alsacian Notation paper.



As usual:

  • please tell us at fcolibri@felix-colibri.com if you found some errors, mistakes, bugs, broken links or had some problem downloading the file. Resulting corrections will be helpful for other readers
  • we welcome any comment, criticism, enhancement, other sources or reference suggestion. Just send an e-mail to fcolibri@felix-colibri.com.
  • or more simply, enter your (anonymous or with your e-mail if you want an answer) comments below and clic the "send" button
    Name :
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  • and if you liked this article, talk about this site to your fellow developpers, add a link to your links page ou mention our articles in your blog or newsgroup posts when relevant. That's the way we operate: the more traffic and Google references we get, the more articles we will write.



4 - References

We first found the Viewstate structure in the following page:


5 - The author

Felix John COLIBRI works at the Pascal Institute. Starting with Pascal in 1979, he then became involved with Object Oriented Programming, Delphi, Sql, Tcp/Ip, Html, UML. Currently, he is mainly active in the area of custom software development (new projects, maintenance, audits, BDE migration, Delphi Xe_n migrations, refactoring), Delphi Consulting and Delph training. His web site features tutorials, technical papers about programming with full downloadable source code, and the description and calendar of forthcoming Delphi, FireBird, Tcp/IP, Web Services, OOP  /  UML, Design Patterns, Unit Testing training sessions.
Created: mar-06. Last updated: sep-16 - 107 articles, 228 .ZIP sources, 1174 figures
Copyright © Felix J. Colibri   http://www.felix-colibri.com 2004 - 2016. All rigths reserved
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